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How do I make Web/HTTP work through my firewall?

There are three ways to do it.
1. Allow ``established'' connections out via a router, if you are using screening routers.
2. Use a web client that supports SOCKS, and run SOCKS on your bastion host.
3. Run some kind of proxy-capable web server on the bastion host. Some options include Squid, Apache, Netscape Proxy, and http-gw from the TIS firewall toolkit. Most of these can also proxy other protocols (such as gopher and ftp), and can cache objects fetched, which will also typically result in a performance boost for the users, and more efficient use of your connection to the Internet. Essentially all web clients (Mozilla, Internet Explorer, Lynx, etc.) have proxy server support built directly into them.

How do I make SSL work through the firewall?

SSL is a protocol that allows secure connections across the Internet. Typically, SSL is used to protect HTTP traffic. However, other protocols (such as telnet) can run atop SSL.
Enabling SSL through your firewall can be done the same way that you would allow HTTP traffic, if it's HTTP that you're using SSL to secure, which is usually true. The only difference is that instead of using something that will simply relay HTTP, you'll need something that can tunnel SSL. This is a feature present on most web object caches.
You can find out more about SSL from Netscape.

How do I make DNS work with a firewall?

Some organizations want to hide DNS names from the outside. Many experts don't think hiding DNS names is worthwhile, but if site/corporate policy mandates hiding domain names, this is one approach that is known to work. Another reason you may have to hide domain names is if you have a non-standard addressing scheme on your internal network. In that case, you have no choice but to hide those addresses. Don't fool yourself into thinking that if your DNS names are hidden that it will slow an attacker down much if they break into your firewall. Information about what is on your network is too easily gleaned from the networking layer itself. If you want an interesting demonstration of this, ping the subnet broadcast address on your LAN and then do an ``arp -a.'' Note also that hiding names in the DNS doesn't address the problem of host names ``leaking'' out in mail headers, news articles, etc.
This approach is one of many, and is useful for organizations that wish to hide their host names from the Internet. The success of this approach lies on the fact that DNS clients on a machine don't have to talk to a DNS server on that same machine. In other words, just because there's a DNS server on a machine, there's nothing wrong with (and there are often advantages to) redirecting that machine's DNS client activity to a DNS server on another machine.
First, you set up a DNS server on the bastion host that the outside world can talk to. You set this server up so that it claims to be authoritative for your domains. In fact, all this server knows is what you want the outside world to know; the names and addresses of your gateways, your wildcard MX records, and so forth. This is the ``public'' server.
Then, you set up a DNS server on an internal machine. This server also claims to be authoritative for your domains; unlike the public server, this one is telling the truth. This is your ``normal'' nameserver, into which you put all your ``normal'' DNS stuff. You also set this server up to forward queries that it can't resolve to the public server (using a ``forwarders'' line in /etc/named.boot on a Unix machine, for example).
Finally, you set up all your DNS clients (the /etc/resolv.conf file on a Unix box, for instance), including the ones on the machine with the public server, to use the internal server. This is the key.
An internal client asking about an internal host asks the internal server, and gets an answer; an internal client asking about an external host asks the internal server, which asks the public server, which asks the Internet, and the answer is relayed back. A client on the public server works just the same way. An external client, however, asking about an internal host gets back the ``restricted'' answer from the public server.
This approach assumes that there's a packet filtering firewall between these two servers that will allow them to talk DNS to each other, but otherwise restricts DNS between other hosts.
Another trick that's useful in this scheme is to employ wildcard PTR records in your IN-ADDR.ARPA domains. These cause an an address-to-name lookup for any of your non-public hosts to return something like ``unknown.YOUR.DOMAIN'' rather than an error. This satisfies anonymous FTP sites like that insist on having a name for the machines they talk to. This may fail when talking to sites that do a DNS cross-check in which the host name is matched against its address and vice versa.

How do I make FTP work through my firewall?

Generally, making FTP work through the firewall is done either using a proxy server such as the firewall toolkit's ftp-gw or by permitting incoming connections to the network at a restricted port range, and otherwise restricting incoming connections using something like ``established'' screening rules. The FTP client is then modified to bind the data port to a port within that range. This entails being able to modify the FTP client application on internal hosts.
In some cases, if FTP downloads are all you wish to support, you might want to consider declaring FTP a ``dead protocol'' and letting you users download files via the Web instead. The user interface certainly is nicer, and it gets around the ugly callback port problem. If you choose the FTP-via-Web approach, your users will be unable to FTP files out, which, depending on what you are trying to accomplish, may be a problem.
A different approach is to use the FTP ``PASV'' option to indicate that the remote FTP server should permit the client to initiate connections. The PASV approach assumes that the FTP server on the remote system supports that operation. (See ``Firewall-Friendly FTP'' [1].)
Other sites prefer to build client versions of the FTP program that are linked against a SOCKS library.

How do I make Telnet work through my firewall?

Telnet is generally supported either by using an application proxy such as the firewall toolkit's tn-gw, or by simply configuring a router to permit outgoing connections using something like the ``established'' screening rules. Application proxies could be in the form of a standalone proxy running on the bastion host, or in the form of a SOCKS server and a modified client.

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